A diamond is a diamond that has been cut by jewelers. The stone got its name from the French word “brilliant”, which means “shiny, sparkling”. It is one of the most expensive gemstones in the world. Diamonds have become famous thanks to references in literature and art.
What is a diamond?
A diamond is called a diamond stone, which has been given a special shape that reveals its beauty completely. A special property is a fluorescence – its ability to glow brightly in ultraviolet light. The jewel is used to make jewelry. The stone has an unusual shine, and in the rays of light it simply “lights up” and shimmers in different colors of the rainbow.
Varieties and color scale
The classic is colorless and transparent. But there are also fancy colors that are less common and more expensive: black; brown or cognac; red; pink; yellow; Violet; green. Stones acquire a multi-colored color due to the inclusion of atoms of iron, boron, nitrogen in the crystal lattice. This happens under the action of high temperature and pressure. The rarest diamonds are black, pink, and blue. They are highly prized and usually only found in private collections.
A white without defects is called a “clear water diamond”. If you put it in water, it is absolutely invisible. The most famous of these stones is the Cullinan. It was originally the largest at 3106 carats. In 1906, the famous jeweler Joseph Ascher, after many months of studying the stone, split it into many pieces. 9 large and 96 small diamonds were made from it.
They began to process almost immediately after their discovery. The initial processing was minimal – one edge of the crystal was grinded, and then polished.
The standard number of facets in diamonds of the highest standard is 57. This number was determined by a variety of physical and mathematical calculations. It is believed that 33 facets at the top of It and 24 facets at the bottom maximize the brilliance and play of light. The round diamond shape with 57 facets is the most common.
This treatment is used for stones weighing at least 0.05 carats. Smaller crystals are cut into 17 facets. The clear structure of the faceted stone appearance has been determined: two main parts – a crown and a pavilion, separated by a girdle; the largest facet is located in the crown, called the platform; 8 wedges extend down from the platform, touching the 8 main faces of the crown; 16 wedges extend upward from the girdle; the pavilion contains 24 wedges, has an elongated shape; the lowest point of the stone is called the culet. In the second half of the 20th century, new methods of cutting diamonds were developed.
They are mainly used for large stones weighing more than 1 carat. The true ways of cutting diamonds are round, royal, and majestic. The last two are square.
There are fantasy ways:
These methods are used depending on the initial shape and the customer’s needs. Rhodium-plated is stones coated with the finest layer of rhodium. The metal increases the strength, protects it from damage, and prolongs its service life.
What diamonds are made of
A real diamond is made from natural. It is a mineral formed naturally from carbon atoms under high pressure and temperature. These are mined at their deposits, so the cost of natural jewelry is high. Synthetic is produced artificially by acting on carbon by pressure and temperature. A method for making from human dust has been developed.
How to distinguish a real diamond from a fake, ways
There are no analogs, that is, precious stones with identical properties. For the manufacture of jewelry, artificially made stones are used, which outwardly very much resemble diamonds. Such stones are much cheaper and do not have appropriate certificates. Although outwardly they are almost indistinguishable, there are several ways to distinguish from cubic zirconia or moissanite. Professional methods Jewelers assess authenticity using complex physical and chemical methods.
Thermal conductivity and light reflection, density, and mass of the stone are measured. The presence of the smallest defects and inclusions is determined under a microscope. The stone is translucent in ultraviolet radiation. Traditional methods of verifying the authenticity of the stone. You can evaluate the signs of authenticity at home: if you breathe on a diamond, it will not fog up; fat leaves a wide strip on natural stone, and collects in drops on moissanite or cubic zirconia; if you run the edge on the glass, a scratch will remain; diamonds sink in water, floating stones are glass or moissanite.
When buying diamond jewelry in a store, you should pay attention to the presence of a certificate from the GIA. Diamond is always set inexpensive metals – platinum or gold, the fineness of the metal is always indicated. In the store, these data are indicated on the tag in the form of a code: the first number indicates the number of stones; then there is an alphanumeric designation of the shape of the cut and the number of faces; the next digit of the marking is the total carat weight; fractions indicate color and clarity; the last letter denotes the cut grade.